[Grammar Assignment] Place and Movement

Group 4:
+ Afifa Pusvita Sari
+ Annisa
+ Denis Medina
+ Frilda Adiguna Bandi
+ Khairunnisa Nasrul
+ Naviri Prilia Rahma
+ Novi Rahayu

Place and movement, prepositional phrases

Preposition and adverbs

· A preposition always has an object, but many prepositiions of place can be used as adverbs with no object.

Example:

What’s inside the box?    (preposition)
Shall we wait inside?       (adverb)

Other include: above, across, along, around, behind, below, beneath, by, in, inside, near, off, on, opposite, outside, round, through, under, underneath, up. This adverbs often combine with verbs.

Example: Come on!  Please sit down.

· Some adverbs can’t be used as prepositionsn and do not have objects.

Example:

+ Brian lives abroad
+ The red car moved ahead

These verbs can often used with a prepsition and an object.

Example: The red car moved ahead of the blue one.

 

Prepositions of Place: at, in, on

In general, we use:

· at for a POINT:
+ at the corner
+ at the bus stop
+ at the door
+ at the top of the page
+ at the end of the road
+ at the entrance
+ at the crossroads
+ at the front desk

· in for an ENCLOSED SPACE:
+ in the garden
+ in London
+ in France
+ in a box
+ in my pocket
+ in my wallet
+ in a building
+ in a car

· on for a SURFACE:
+ on the wall
+ on the ceiling
+ on the door
+ on the cover
+ on the floor
+ on the carpet
+ on the menu
+ on a page

Look at these examples:

· Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop.
· The shop is at the end of the street.
· My plane stopped at Dubai and Hanoi and arrived in Bangkok two hours late.
· When will you arrive at the office?
· Do you work in an office?
· I have a meeting in New York.
· Do you live in Japan?
· Jupiter is in the Solar System.
· The author’s name is on the cover of the book.
· There are no prices on this menu.
· You are standing on my foot.
· There was a “no smoking” sign on the wall.
· I live on the 7th floor at 21 Oxford Street in London.

Notice the use of the prepositions of place at, in and on in these standard expressions:

At : at home, at work, at school, at university, at college, at the top,  at the bottom, at the side, at the reception

In: in a car, in a taxi, in a helicopter, in a boat, in a lift, in a newspaper, in the sky, in a row, ib oxfo4d street,

On: on a bus, on a train, on a plane, on a ship, on a bicycle, on a motorbike, on a horse, on the television, on the left/right, on the way,

 

Prepositions of Movement

Prepositions are used to show movement to or from a place.

For example:

to, through, across

We use to to show movement with the aim of a specific destination.

For example:
+ I moved to Germany in 1998.
+ He’s gone to the shops.

We use through to show movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other.
For example:
+ The train went through the tunnel.

We use across to show movement from one side of a surface or line to another.

For example:
She swam across the river.

More prepositions of movement:

She ran…
+ Across the road (from one side to the other)
+ Along the road (The length of the road.)
+ Around the playground
+ Away from the policeman
+ Back to the shop
+ Down the hill
+ Into the room
+ Off the stage
+ Onto (on to) the platform
+ Out of the theatre
+ Over the bridge (from one side of an open space to the other)
+ Past the opening
+ Round the track
+ Through the tunnel
+ To the door
+ Towards the bus stop
+ Under the shelter
+ Up the hill

At and in can also be used as prepositions of movement, but they’re used to show the purpose of the movement.

For example:
+ I threw the paper in the bin.
+ Let’s have dinner at my place.

When used after some verbs, the preposition at also shows the target of an action:

The bowler was sent off for throwing the ball at the umpire, instead of to the batsman.

At the minimum, a prepositional phrase will begin with a preposition and end with a noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause, the “object” of the preposition.

The object of the preposition will often have one or more modifiers to describe it. These are the patterns for a prepositional phrase:

preposition + noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause

preposition + modifier(s) + noun, pronoun, gerund, or clause

Here are some examples of the most basic prepositional phrase:

+ At home (At = preposition; home = noun)

+ In time (In = preposition; time = noun)

+ From Richie (From = preposition; Richie = noun)

+ With me (With = preposition; me = pronoun)

+ By singing (By = preposition; singing = gerund)

+ About what we need (About = preposition; what we need = noun clause)

Most prepositional phrases are longer, like these:

+ From my grandmother (From = preposition; my = modifier; grandmother = noun)

+ Under the warm blanket (Under = preposition; the, warm = modifiers; blanket = noun)

+ In the weedy, overgrown garden (In = preposition; the, weedy, overgrown = modifiers; garden = noun)

+ Along the busy, six-lane highway (Along = preposition; the, busy, six-lane = modifiers; highway = noun)

+ Without excessively worrying (Without = preposition; excessively = modifier; worrying = gerund)

Understand what prepositional phrases do in a sentence.
A prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or adverb. As an adjective, the prepositional phrase will answer the question Which one?

Read these examples:

The book on the bathroom floor is swollen from shower steam.
Which book? The one on the bathroom floor!

The sweet potatoes in the vegetable bin are green with mold.
Which sweet potatoes? The ones forgotten in the vegetable bin!

The note from Beverly confessed that she had eaten the leftover pizza.
Which note? The one from Beverly!

As an adverb, a prepositional phrase will answer questions such as How? When? or Where?

Freddy is stiff from yesterday’s long football practice.
How did Freddy get stiff? From yesterday’s long football practice!

Before class, Josh begged his friends for a pencil.
When did Josh do his begging? Before class!

Feeling brave, we tried the Dragon Breath Burritos at Tito’s Taco Palace.
Where did we eat the spicy food? At Tito’s Taco Palace!

Remember that a prepositional phrase will never contain the subject of a sentence.

Sometimes a noun within the prepositional phrase seems the logical subject of a verb. Don’t fall for that trick! You will never find a subject in a prepositional phrase. Look at this example:

+ Neither of these cookbooks contains the recipe for Manhattan-style squid eyeball stew.

Cookbooks do indeed contain recipes. In this sentence, however, cookbooks is part of the prepositional phrase of these cookbooks. Neither—whatever a neither is—is the subject for the verb contains.

Neither is singular, so you need the singular form of the verb, contains. If you incorrectly identified cookbooks as the subject, you might write contain, the plural form, and thus commit a subject-verb agreement error.

Some prepositions—such as along with and in addition to—indicate “more to come.” They will make you think that you have a plural subject when in fact you don’t. Don’t fall for that trick either! Read this example:

Tommy, along with the other students, breathed a sigh of relief when Mrs. Markham announced that she was postponing the due date for the research essay.

Logically, more than one student is happy with the news. But Tommy is the only subject of the verb breathed. His classmates count in the real world, but in the sentence, they don’t matter, locked as they are in the prepositional phrase.
Source:
+ Yulianti, Ari. 2012. Tata Bahasa Inggris for Beginner. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Widyatama
+ http://www.englishclub.com
+ http://www.learnenglish.de
+ http://www.dailygrammar.com
+ http://www.chompchomp.com

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